Tag Archives: Great Smokies

Who Was George Masa?

Chances are you’ve never heard of him, but Masa was a pivotal player in the struggle to have a national park established in the mountains of Western North Carolina.  He was a photographer, and it was his photographs that helped convince the National Park Service that the Southern mountains were worthy of being preserved in a national park.

Masa was born Masahara Izuka in Osaka Japan in the early 1880s.  He came to the US in 1905, and in 1915 he came to Asheville as a tourist.  He loved the mountains so much that he stayed and began working at the Grove Park Inn.  By 1918 he had opened a photography studio, Plateau Studios, where he made studio photos and street scenes of Asheville.

But increasingly, he began lugging his camera and equipment into the mountains.  He began making photos that were colorized and made into postcards, like the one of the Lake Lure Inn above.  He also made motion films for various services.  He was a very busy man.  He became friends with Horace Kephart, well-known writer of the mountains, and he was involved with the new Carolina Mountain Club.

Through club outings, in which he was often assisted by some of the women of the group, he began mapping and measuring the mountains.  He made meticulous records, maps, and photo albums which labeled the southern Applachian area.

Masa had done well as a photographer, and he used the money he made to finance his mountain expeditions.  However, the Depression hit Asheville hard, and Masa struggled financially for the last years of his life.  He and Kephart continued to push for a national park, but neither man lived to see it happen.  Kephart died in an auto accident in 1931 and Masa died in 1933 of a respiratory ailment, most likely the flu.  The next year, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park was formed.

After his death, the man who had played such a major part in the formation of the Park was all but forgotten.  Over the years several local scholors had researched his life, but his work was still widely unknown, partly due to his photographic negatives being sold to another photographer after his death.  But several years ago, local film maker Paul Bonesteel ran across Masa’s story and was intrigued.  He set out to study the written and oral reconds.  Masa had written many letters to his friends which still exist, and there were quite a few people still alive who had memories of him.

The resulting film, The Mystery of George Masa is a fascinating study of how an immigrant from Japan managed to carve a niche for himself here in the mountains, and at the same time saw the beauty of the mountains, many of which had been stripped bare by clear cut foresting.

I happened on the film last week.  There is a small exhibit of Masa photographs at Western Carolina University.  Because the 75th anniversary of the park is this year, he has been talked about quite a bit.  At the exhibit, the museum has the film playing.  I was listening as I browsed the photos, but then when they began to talk about the women members of the Carolina Mountain Club, I was hooked.

I’m almost finished with this over-long post, but one more interesting thing.  In the film it is brought out that material for the documentary was gathered from many sources, including thrift stores!  Because Masa in not a household name, and even if he were, his name is not commonly found on his work, many people in the Asheville area might still have Masa photographs in old photo albums, and from time to time they do resurface.

But the biggest stash of undiscovered Masa photos is probably in Florida.  The guy who bought Masa’s negatives was Elliot Lyman Fisher.  He retired and moved to Florida where he died in 1968.  Attempts to find these negatives have been unsuccessful.  Hopefully they are still out there.

The Mystery of George Masa, in a shortened version, will be shown on many PBS stations on September 28.

PS for those who will want to argue the evilness of the formation of the GSMNP:

I am not unsympathetic to the argument that many people were displaced by the park’s formation and that an entire culture was erased.  In fact, my husband’s grandparents lost their home, so believe me, I know how bad this was.  However, it has to be said that the great majority of the land came from lumber companies who had stripped the mountains bare.  And over the years, seeing what has happened to the Southern Applachians that are not protected, I think we all need to put it into perspective.  Yes, whole communities were displaced and people were misled.  But if the park had not been established, then we’d have multi-million dollar houses dotting the area, and it would all be gated.  Sometimes the end is worth a sacrifice.  Feel free to post your comments about this issue, but be nice.  If I get some of the nasty remarks that I’ve read on other blogs concerning this issue, I will delete them.

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1920s Girl Campers

Before women wore long slacks, they wore knickers.  I just love the basketball sneakers the girl above is wearing, along with her white linen knickers and fancy stockings..

Both of these vintage photos are from camping cottages.  These were not organized summer camps for kids, but rather camps for families.

In the last half of the 19th century, camping became a form of recreation.  This was just a very few years after 1000s of Americans traveling across the Continent HAD to camp as a necessity of the westward journey!  In the East especially, camping clubs were formed, and camping communities established.  In these communities, permanent structures were built.  Some were quite luxurious, but most were like the ones you see here – small cottages or cabins with large sleeping porches.

There were several of these camping communities in the Great Smokies, the most famous one being Elkmont.  When the Great Smokies National Park was established, the owners of these cottages were allowed to hold the lease to their properties until 1992.  Now the remaining cottages are empty and the Park Service is trying to decide what to do with them.  I’m afraid their days are numbered, as the official stance seems to be to let the camping areas return to wilderness.  My guess is that is because wilderness is cheaper and easier to maintain than old wooden structures.  At any rate, it is a real shame.

This camper appears to be wearing a sweater in the style of a middy, along with knickers and stockings.  Do you see shoes??

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Filed under Camping and Hiking, Proper Clothing, Vintage Photographs

Beating the Heat Wave

It seems like half of the country is in the grips of a heat wave, and the other half has cool and rainy weather.  Here in the mountains, it has been quite nice after record-breaking heat over the weekend.

People flock to the mountains in the summer thinking it is very cool here, and it is cooler than other places in the South.  The coolest of all mountain places are the streams and rivers.  I spent many summer days in my childhood and youth, cooling off in the swimming holes of the Pigeon River.  Back in those days – before people felt that air conditioning was a necessity – people would commonly load the neighborhood kids in a truck, back it right up to the river bank, and use the tailgate as a makeshift diving board.

Even on the hottest days, the water was freezing!  In the photos above, which were taken from a 1940s tourist advertisement book called Gateways to the Smokies, the bathers on the dock were probably just glad to be there, and not actually in the water.  The streams in the high Smokies are even colder than the valley river I was most familiar with.

Side note:  I don’t think swimming au naturale had the same meaning in 1940 as it does today, or perhaps the brochure writers had a flair for the double entendre!

The photo below comes from a 1945 brochure advertising the Mountain View Hotel in Gatlinburg, Tennessee.  This was back when people went to Gatlinburg to enjoy the mountains.  Now they visit Gatlingburg  to… well, for what I really can’t say.  To me it seems like the town is a huge money-sucking distraction to what should be the main attraction, the Smoky Mountains.

But back in the 40s, Gatlingburg was a place to stay, a home base, for exploring the mountains.  The hotel even planned day trips for their guests, complete with a box lunch.  They did horseback riding and fishing excursions.  The hotel was rustic, but it offered a level of service that is extremely rare today.


Posted by Gail:

In 1983, my family (husband, 2 children and me) passed through Gatlinburg on our way from Chicago to Orlando Florida. We thought it was the tackiest place we had ever seen. We continued into the Great Smokies and camped for 2 or 3 nights. We had a wonderful time. It was so cool and peaceful. I don’t think we swam in any of the streams, but I have pictures of my children wading.

Monday, June 29th 2009 @ 8:05 AM

Posted by Lizzie:

Gail, you are so right, and unfortunately it is even worse now because there is so much more of it. The Smokies, on the other hand, remain as beautiful as ever!

Wednesday, July 1st 2009 @ 10:54 AM

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Filed under North Carolina, Summer Sports

Camp Life, Great Smokies, 1930s

These two vintage postcards are most likely from the very early 1930s, and while they are not of the same site, the subject tends to tie them together.  There’s no way to tell where the original photos were made, but for the last one at least, I suspect East Tennessee as the photographer was based in Knoxville.

What I really found interesting about the top postcard was how the women were dressed; they look more like they are setting up a patio party than a camp dinner!  They even appear to be wearing heeled shoes.  I can’t help but think they knew they were to be photographed and wanted to look their best!  Contrast they way they look with the women in this earlier hiking shot.

Even in the early 1930s, most women were not wearing pants outside of the most casual of activities, and they would have wanted to appear in the accepted mode of dress.  The photo of the  hikers from the early 20s was possibly a spontaneous shot of hikers the photographer happened to encounter.

UPDATE: The bottom picture is from a Jim Thompson photo, and was taken at an early (1920s) camp on Mt. LeConte.  LeConte is in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and today there is a primitive lodge up there.

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Filed under Camping and Hiking, Proper Clothing

Currently Reading: Images of America

If you love old photos and local history, you must check out this site to see if they have a book on your area:

Arcadia Publishing

I just bought the Great Smoky Mountains National Park book, and though most of the pictures are of the Tennessee side of the park, it’s a great book.  There are lots of pictures not only of the original settlers of the region, but also of early tourism here.  From auto campers to the formation of permanent camping communities, the story is well told in both text and photos.

The cover picture is of a group from Knoxville, Tennesse, about 1915.  By that time there was a daily train from Knoxville to Elkmont in the Smokies.  Groups would do daytrips to the area, and would often bring swimsuits for a bracing dip in the cold mountain river.  There were also large tourist hotels in the area, none of which remain.

The book ends with the formation of Gatlinburg as a tourist town.  It is located right on the western edge of the Park, and so was perfectly located as a hotel and restaurant hub.  It’s a good example of “Be careful what you wish for,” because  today Gatlinburg is  over-developed and over-commercialized.  But in the 1950s, and even into the 60s, it was a nice place to visit.  I can remember going there with my family about 1967 and playing in a little park.  And I read last week, that the last of the old attractions, Christus Gardens, has just been sold to a developer.

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Filed under Currently Reading, Road Trip, Vintage Travel

It’s Leaf-Time in Tarheelia

This reminder is brought to us from the North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development, by way of the September 1948 issue of Holiday magazine.  The second paragraph describes today to a T… Crisp autumn air, warmed by golden sunshine

The ad makes a big deal of the riding and dude ranches in WNC, and for many years this was a riding center.  Today that part of the tourist industry is more or less just a memory, with only a handful of “ranches” still open.

You will, however, still find the odd Cherokee man wearing a full Sioux headdress, waiting to pose with the kids for a $10 tip.

The little drawing at the bottom is the parking lot at Newfound Gap, in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.  I read somewhere that the Great Smokies is the most visited national park in the country, and that only a small percentage of visitors get more than 100 feet from their cars.  It’s kind of a drive-through park, with Cherokee, NC on one end and Gatlinburg, TN on the other.  On a lucky day, a visitor will even see a bear or two, which wander down to the road in search of food.  Quite unbelievably, this is the time when some visitors choose to leave their cars, in order to get a closer look at the creature.  Trust me, that is NOT a good idea.

I went through the park on Tuesday, and like most folks, I barely left my car.  But I chose the route, not because it was fast or convenient, but because of this:

The view from the Newfound Gap parking lot, and where I ate my dinner.

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